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楼主  发表于: 2006-05-29 15:47


  大陆会议 (一七七六年七月四日)美利坚合众国十三个州一致通过的独立宣言
  When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
  We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. --That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. —Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain [George III] is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
  He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
  他禁止他的总督们批准迫切而极为必要的法律,要不就把这些法律搁置起来暂不生效,等待他的同意 ;而一旦这些法律被搁置起来,他对它们就完全置之不理。
  He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
  他拒绝批准便利广大地区人民的其他法律,除非那些人民情愿放弃自己在立法机关中的代表权; 但这种权利对他们有无法估量的价值,而且只有暴君才畏惧这种权利。
  He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
  He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
  他在解散各州议会之後,又长期拒绝另选新议会; 但立法权是无法取消的,因此这项权力仍由一般人民来行使。其时各州仍然处於危险的境地,既有外来侵略之患,又有发生内乱之忧。
  He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
  他竭力抑制我们各州增加人囗; 为此目的,他阻挠外国人入籍法的通过,拒绝批准其地鼓励外国人移居各州的法律,并提高分配新土地的条件。
  He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
  He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
  He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the consent of our legislatures.
  He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
  He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
  他同某些人勾结起来把我们置於一种不适合我们的体制且不为我们的法律所承认的管辖之下 ; 他还批准那些人炮制的各种伪法案来达到以下目的 :
  For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
  For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
  For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
  For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
  For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
  For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
  For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:
  For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
  He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
  He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
  He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
  He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
  他在我们中间煽动内乱,并且竭力挑唆那些残酷无情、没有开化的印第安人来杀掠我们追撞的居民 ; 而众所周知,印第安人的作战规律是不分男女老幼,一律格杀勿论的。
  In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
  Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
  We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
The signers of the Declaration represented the new states as follows:
  New Hampshire
  Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton
  John Hancock, Samual Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
  Rhode Island
  Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
  Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
  New York
  William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
  New Jersey
  Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
  Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
  Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean
  Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
  George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
  North Carolina
  William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
  South Carolina
  Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
  Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
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1楼  发表于: 2006-10-08 15:01
i love independence
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2楼  发表于: 2009-07-06 13:55
    When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
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3楼  发表于: 2010-08-29 08:17