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楼主  发表于: 2007-03-18 11:57

 时间连词when,while,as的用法与译例(选自<欧!亨利短篇小说精选>)

管理提醒: 本帖被 Koloya 从 金于 - 文学专区 移动到本区(2009-11-12)
时间连词when,while,as
这里,把前后三篇遇到的有关例句收集、剪裁、分类与说明如下:
when表示“同时”关系,译成“当”、“当时候”。例如:
(1)Johnsy was sleeping when they went upstairs.
当他们上楼时,琼熙正在睡。
(2)When Sue awoke from an hour’s sleep the next morning she found Johnsy with dull wide-open eyes staring at the drawn green shade.
当苏娥第二天早晨从一个小时的睡眠中醒来时,他发现琼熙睁大迟钝的眼睛注视着拉下来的绿色窗帘。
值得注意的:when表示两种“同时”关系。一种是 “部分地同时”;另一种是“完全地同时”或“始终同时”。后者在主句与从句表示持续的动作时特别明显,比如上引的第一句。比如下面两句,从句表示一段持续的状态或动作,主句表示短时间的动作或状态,“部分地同时”就比较明显:
When it was light enough Johnsy, the merciless, commanded that the shade be raised.
当天已大亮,忍心的琼熙仍然命令把窗帘拉下。
When the luncheon hour drew near there came a slight lull in the uproar.
当午餐时间临近,喧嚣稍有停顿。
‘Don’t you understand?’ said Maxwell restively. ‘I want you to marry me. I love you, Miss Leslie. I wanted to tell you, and I snatched a minute when things had slackened up a bit. They’re calling me for the phone now. Tell ‘em to wait a minute, Pitcher. Won’t you, Miss Leslie?’
“你知道吗?”倔强地说:“我希望你嫁给我。我爱你,莱思丽小姐。我想告诉你,我趁情况稍微轻松一点就抓紧这点时间来找你。他们现在就打电话叫我。告诉他们等一会儿,皮邱。莱思丽小姐,你愿意吗?”
‘I couldn’t get any pupils’; she confessed. ‘And I couldn’t bear to have you give up your lessons and I got a place ironing shirts in that big Twenty-fourth Street laundry. And I think did very well to make up both General Pinkney and Clementina, don’t you, Joe? And when a girl in the laundry set down a hot iron on my hand this afternoon I was all the way home making up that story about the Welsh rabbit. You’re not angry, are you, Joe? And if I hadn’t got the work you mightn’t have sold your sketches to that man from Peoria.’
“我并没有收到任何一个学生,”她承认了。“而我又不忍让你放弃你的学业;所以我在二十四号大街那家大的洗衣店找到一个熨衬衫的位置。我想,我把平克尼将军和克莱门提娜两个人的故事编造得天衣无缝,亲爱的,是不是?可是今天下午,洗衣店里的一个女孩儿把热熨斗放到我的手上,我在回家的路上一直在编造‘威尔士奶酪面包’的故事,亲爱的,你不生气吧?如果我没有找到这份工作,你就不可能卖素描给那个来自皮奥里亚的人。”
On his bench Madison Square Soapy moved uneasily. When wild geese honk high of nights, and when women without sealskin coats grow kind to their husbands, and when Soapy moves uneasily on his bench in the park, you may know that winter is near at hand.
索丕躺在麦迪逊广场一条长凳上辗转不安。当大雁在夜空长鸣,当不穿海豹皮外衣的女人对丈夫开始关心,当索丕躺在公园一条长凳上辗转不安,这时读者可能知道,冬天已经近在咫尺。
When前(在主句里)可能用了“时间状语”,但该“时间状语”一般不需要译出来。例如:
And the anthem that the organist played cemented Soapy to the iron fence, for he had known it well in the days when his life contained such things as mothers and roses and ambitions and friends and immaculate thoughts and collars.
风琴师弹奏的圣歌把索丕牢牢地粘在铁栏杆上,因为他曾经熟悉这些圣歌,那时候他的生活里包含着这样的内容:母爱、玫瑰、理想、友情、纯洁的思想与体面的衣着。
His hand was steady when he began to read, but it trembled a little by the time he had finished. (比较when与 by the time)
他开始读时,他的手是稳定的,但当他读完时,手有点儿颤抖了。
但下句的翻译特殊,during a former period of prosperity when译成“那是他从前每周有报酬30元的盛世”;另外,比较when 与as though,when与 whenever:
The ‘Dillingham had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now, when the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of ‘Dillingham’ looked blurred, as though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. But whenever Mr. James Dillingham Young came home and reached his flat above he was called ‘Jim; and greatly hugged by Mrs. James Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Della, which is all very good.
“笛林汉”也曾春风得意,那是他从前每周有报酬30元的盛世”。如今,当这份收入缩减到20元,“笛林汉”这几个字看上去已经模糊了,似乎它们在认真考虑收缩成谦虚的、不固定的“笛”。但每当简姆斯·笛林汉·杨先生回家,走到他自己二楼上面的房子时,他听到简姆斯·笛林汉·杨太太(也就是已经介绍给读者的那位德拉)亲切地叫他“吉莫”(“吉莫”是爱称。译者注),并且被她热烈地拥抱,——这是再好不过的了。
有时可以省略when而只保留它前面的时间状语,如by the time(when)。例如:
Miss Leslie has given perfect satisfaction during the year she has been here.莱思丽小姐来公司一年了,她的工作令人十分满意。
以上例句都是描述某两件事情、或两个动作发生在同一时间;如果这种“同时”关系转化为“条件”关系,When就可以换成if。但When仍然可以译成“当”或“当···时候”,当然也可以译成“如果”;而even when可以译成“即使”或“甚至当”。例如:
When one loves one’s art no service seems too hard.
当一个人热爱他的艺术时,看来没有什么奉献是难以承受的。
He set his face down this toward Madison Square, for the homing instinct survives even when the home is a park bench.
他沿着这条路面向麦迪逊广场走去,因为回家的本能还存在,即使家是公园里的一条长凳。
When a Pittsburger wants to spend money and have a good time he stays at home.如果一个匹兹堡人想花钱享受,他就留在家乡。
When he was showing me his cabinet of art curios his face lighted up like the door of a coke oven.
当他给我看他放艺术古董的房间时,他的脸亮堂了,像炼钢炉门口燃烧着焦炭。
Picher, confidential clerk in the office of Harvey Maxwell, broker, allowed a look of mild interest and surprise to visit his usually expressionless countenance when his employer briskly entered at half-past nine in company with his young lady stenographer.
皮邱是经纪人哈威·麦克斯维尔办公室的秘书(或译:机要办事员),当他的老板九点半钟带着自己年轻的女士速记员走进公司,皮邱平常没有表情的脸上也露出淡淡的兴趣与惊异。
时间从句的位置不固定,可以放在主句前,也可以放在主句后,当然要根据思想内容与语言结构的需要。比如,如果It用做主语并表示“时间”,则时间从句一定要放在主句之后。It…when甚至可以看成一种句型。例如:
‘Three minutes to ten,’ he announced ‘It was exactly ten o’clock when we parted here at the reatraunant door.’
“还有三分钟就到十点,”他郑重地说。“我们在饭馆门口这里分别时,正好是十点。”
时间从句如果比主句明显地长,通常也要放在主句之后,遇到这种情况,要译成“这时”(如果表示“同时”关系)或“于是”(如果表示“条件”关系)。例如:
But Johnsy did not answer. The lonesomest thing in all the world is a soul when it is making ready to go on its mysterious, far journey. The fancy seemed to possess her more strongly as one by one the ties that bound her to friendship and to earth were loosed.
但是琼熙没有回答。当一个人准备好去做一次神秘的、遥远的旅行——这是世界上最凄凉的情景了。这种幻觉似乎牢牢地占有了她,好像她与友情、与人间的联系纽带一根一根地在变得松了。
when引出的时间从句也可以看成定语从句修饰前面的名词。例如:
It was neither the season nor the hour when the Park had frequenters; and it is likely that the young lady, who was seated on one of the benches at the side of the walk, had merely obeyed a sudden impulse to sit for a while and enjoy a foretaste of coming Spring.
现在不是公园常来游人的季节与时段,这位年轻的女士坐在公园人行道旁边的一个长椅子上,看来这只是由于一时的感情冲动;她是突然想来这里坐一会儿,感受春天即将来临的信息。(when the Park had frequenters修饰前面的名词the season与the hour。译者注)
When引出的从句可以省略主语与系词,即When后面直接跟分词或介词短语、等。例如:
When about midway of a certain block the policeman suddenly slowed his walk. In the doorway of a darkened hardware store a man leaned, with an unlighted cigar in his mouth.
当警察走了半个街区,突然放慢了脚步。一家黑暗的五金店门口有一个男子依靠在那里,他嘴上叼着一只未点燃的雪茄。
While也表示主句与从句之间的“同时”关系。但While与When同中有异:后者可以表示“部分同时”或“全部同时”;但前者只表示“全部同时”,而且“全部同时”这种含义特别明显。比较:
While I teach I learn. I am always with my music.
我教别人时,自己也在学习。我始终与音乐在一起。
正因为While表示明显的“全部同时”,所以当从句位于主句之后,While可以表示“让步”关系,译成“而”, “而同时”、“这时”。例如:
Do you think I’m going to let you hustle for wages while I philander in the regions of high art”?
你认为我会让你为薪金奔忙而我在高尚的艺术领域里追逐吗?
The day wore away, and even through the twilight they could see the lone ivy leaf clinging to its stem against the wall. And then, with the coming of the night the north wind was again loosed, while the rain still beat against the windows and pattered down from the low Dutch eaves.
这一天熬过去了,但她们仍然能够透过黄昏的微光看见那片孤独寂寞的叶子依偎着叶柄悬挂在墙上。接着,随着夜的来临,北风再一次发狂,而暴雨依旧击打着窗户,拍打着低矮的荷兰式的屋檐。
So now Della’s beautiful hair fell about her, rippling and shining like a cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knee and made itself almost a garment for her. And then she did it up again nervously and quickly. Once she faltered for a minute, and stood still while a tear or two splashed on the worn red carpet.
所以此时,德拉美丽的头发散落在身上,像褐色的小瀑布,闪闪发光。飘逸的长发一直披到膝盖之下,几乎成了她身上的长外套(或译:长袍)。接着,她神经质地迅速把头发重又卷起来。她犹豫了一会儿,静静地站着,一、两行眼泪滴落在破旧的红地毯上。
比较:
When ‘Dixie’ was being played a dark-haired young man sprang up from somewhere with a Mosby guerrilla yell and waved frantically his soft-brimmed hat. Then he strayed through the smoke, dropped into the vacant chair at our table and pulied out cigarettes.
正当“迪克西”的演奏如火如荼,一个黑发的青年——摩兹比游击队员大叫一声(或译:带着摩兹比游击队员冲杀的喊声),从什么地方跳了出来,疯狂地挥动着手里的软边沿的帽子。
As也只表示“全部同时”,但与while有差别。While通常连接两个持续时间较长的动作或状态,As通常连接两个持续时间较短的动作或状态。或者说,前者表示明显的“全部同时”,后者表示不明显的“全部同时”。例如:
‘She has one chance in—let us say, ten.’ he said, as he shook down the mercury in his clinical thermometer.
“我们可以说,她最多有十分之一的可能,”他说时,一面甩下临床用的体温计里的水银。
‘“Andy, ” says I, as we strayed through the smoke along the cinder path they call Smithfield Street, “had you figured out how we are going to get acquainted with these coke kings and pig-iron squeezers?
“当我们穿过烟雾、沿着煤渣路,摸索着在人们称为“史密斯菲尔德大街”上行进,我对安笛说:‘安笛,你想过没有?我们怎样去结识这些焦炭大王们’与贪婪的钢铁剥削者呢?
As Sue was sketching a pair of elegant horseshow riding trousers and a monocle on the figure of the hero, an Idaho cowboy, she heard a low sound, several times repeated. She went quickly to the bedside.
当苏娥正在为主人公——爱达荷州的一个牛仔画他在赛马会上穿的漂亮马裤与单片眼镜,她听见一个低的声音重复了好几次。她迅速走到床边。
The doctor came in the afternoon, and Sue had an excuse to go into the hallway as he left.
下午医生进来了,当他离开的时候,苏娥找了个借口跑到走廊。
A tall young man came striding through the park along the path near which she sat. Behind him tagged a boy carryimg a suitcase. At sight of the young lady the man’s face changed to red and back to pale again. He watched her countenance as he drew nearer, with hope and anxiety mingled on his own. He passed within a few yards of her, but he saw no evidence that she was aware of his presence or existence.
一个高个子的青年人沿着她坐的地方附近的小径,大步穿过公园。他身后紧跟一个男孩子,提着一个箱子。那男子见到这位年轻的女士,他苍白的脸变红了,转而又变得苍白。他一边走近,一边注视着女子的面容,自己的脸上交织着希望与激动。他走到离女子不远时,他还看不出她是否已经知道他的到来或存在。
Swift and stately she moved away through the dusk. The young man watched her graceful form as she reached the pavement at the park’s edge, and turned up along it toward the corner where stood the automobile.
她迅速而庄严地从暮色中离去。青年男子注视着她优美的身影,见她走到公园边缘的人行道,转身走向停放那辆汽车的路口。
The silver heart left the office, swinging and banging itself independently against the office furniture as it indignantly departed.
那个女士,那个“银制的心”,离开了办公室;当她带着它愤怒地离开时,摇摇晃晃,叮叮当当,自由自在地磕碰着办公室的家具。
Neatly upon his left ear on the callous pavement two waiters pitched Soapy. He arose, joint by joint, as a carpenter’s rule opens, and beat the dust from his clothes. Arrest seemed but a rosy dream. The Island seemed very far away. A policeman who stood before a drug store two doors away laughed and walked down the street.
两个堂倌架着索丕,把他扔到坚硬的人行道上,他的左耳干净利索地贴在地上。他卷曲的身子,像木工尺那样,一节一节地打开,站了起来,拍打去衣服上的灰尘。被警察抓去,看来只是个美丽的梦。那个岛看来非常遥远。一个警察就站在离这里只有两个店门的一个药店前,离这里只有两个店门,见此情形大笑,然后沿着大街扬长而去。
比较:
When she reached the corner she turned her head to glance at the motor-car, and then passed it, continuing on across the street.
当她走到路口,她转过头,瞥了轿车一眼,然后走过去了,继续往前,横穿街道。
When about midway of a certain block the policeman suddenly slowed his walk. In the doorway of a darkened hardware store a man leaned, with an unlighted cigar in his mouth. the policeman walked up to him the man spoke up quickly.
当警察走了半个街区,突然放慢了脚步。一家黑暗的五金店门口有一个男子依靠在那里,他嘴上叼着一只未点燃的雪茄。当警察向他走来,他迅速地上前解释。
‘ “When I saw him he’d just won a bet of $10,000 with a Steel Corporation man that there’d be four suicides in the Allegheny rolling mills today.‘我见到他时,他正好与一个钢铁公司的人打赌:阿勒菲尼轧钢厂今天会发生四起自杀事件,他赢了一万美元。
由于As表示不明显的“全部同时”,所以更常用来表示“比较”(译成“正如”)与“原因”(译成“因为”)等意义。例如:
Mr. and Mrs. Larrabee became enamoured one of the other or each of the other, as you please, and in a short time were married – for (see above), when one loves one’s Art no service seems too hard.
焦和笛丽雅彼此或互相(你愿意怎么说都可以)一见钟情,短期内就结了婚,因为(如上面所说),当一个人热爱他的艺术时,看来没有什么奉献是难以承受的。
The magi, as you know, were wise men—wonderfully wise men—who brought gifts to he Baby in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the privilege of exchange in case of duplication. And here I have lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of the foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed of each other the greatest treasures of their house. But in a last word to the wise of these days, let it be said that of all who give and receive gifts, such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the magi..
读者知道,星占家是些聪明人,绝顶聪明的人,他们把礼物带给槽子里的婴孩耶稣。他们发明了送圣诞礼物的方法。他们聪明,他们的礼物无疑也是聪明的,这些礼物可能具有在同样情况下交换的权利。我这里笨拙地叙述了公寓里两个傻孩子平淡奇的故事,夫妻俩最不聪明地为对方牺牲了自己家里最大的财富。但是,让我们给如今的聪明人进最后一言:在所有赠送与接受礼物的人里,夫妻俩是最聪明的。无论在什么地方,夫妻俩是最聪明的。夫妻俩就是绝顶聪明的“星占家”。
For years the hospitable Blackwell’s had been his winter quarters. Just as his more fortunate fellow New Yorkers had bought their tickets to Palm Beach and the Riviera each winter, so Soapy had made his humble arrangements for his annual hegira to the Island. And now the time was come. On the previous night three Sabbath newspapers, distributed beneath his coat, about his ankles and over his lap, had failed to repulse the cold as he slept on his bench near the spurting fountain in the ancient square.
多年来,好客的布莱克韦尔监狱一直是他的冬季住地。正如那些比他幸运的纽约同仁们每个冬天带着车票去棕榈滩与里维埃拉。索丕也为自己每年逃亡布莱克韦尔岛尽力做出安排。现在是时候了。前一天的夜里,当他睡在这个古老的广场喷水池附近的长凳上时,三份“安息日报”垫在外衣下面,靠近踝骨,遮盖着膝盖,并没能抵挡住寒冷。
The ‘Dillingham had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now, when the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of ‘Dillingham’ looked blurred, as though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. but whenever Mr. James Dillingham Young came home and reached his flat above he was called ‘Jim; and greatly hugged by Mrs. James Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Della, which is all very good.(as though表示“似乎”。译者注)
“笛林汉”也曾春风得意,那是他从前每周有报酬30元的“盛世”。如今,当这份收入缩减到20元,“笛林汉”这几个字看上去已经模糊了,似乎它们在认真考虑收缩成谦虚的、不固定的“笛”。但每当简姆斯·笛林汉·杨先生回家,走到他自己二楼上面的房子时,他听到简姆斯·笛林汉·杨太太(也就是已经介绍给读者的那位德拉)亲切地叫他“吉莫”(“吉莫”是爱称。译者注),并且被她热烈地拥抱,——这是再好不过的了。
She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out. It was a platinum fob chain simple and chaste in design, properly proclaiming its value by substance alone and not by meretricious ornamentation—as all good things should do. It was even worthy of The Watch. As soon as she saw it she knew that it must be Jim’s It was like him. Quietness and value—the description applied to both. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and she hurried home with the 87 cents. With that chain on his watch Jim might be properly anxious about the time in any company. Grand as the watch was, he sometimes looked at it on the sly on account of the old leather strip that he used in place of a chain. (As soon as表示“刚”。译者注)
她终于找到了这样的礼物。它肯定是专为吉莫制造的。商店里再没有比它更好的东西了,因为她把所有商店都翻了个底朝天。这礼物就是一条白金表链,款式简单朴素,货真价实,不是靠花哨的包装、而是靠真正的质量正当地显示自己的价值,一切好的东西都应该如此。表链的价值甚至等于那只金表。她一眼就看出,这就是吉莫应该有的礼物。它和吉莫一样。朴实而有价值——这评价适用于它和吉莫。她用了二十一元买了这只表链,她带着八角七分匆匆赶回家。吉莫的怀表有了这只表链,在任何同伴面前都可以大方地关心时间了。虽然那只怀表很高贵,但由于用一条旧的皮带子代替表链,他有时不得不偷偷地看表。
Joe was painting in the class of the great Magister – you know his fame. His fees are high; his lessons are light - his high-lights have brought him renown. Delia was studying under Rosenstock – you know his repute as a disturber of the piano keys.
焦·拉腊毕在大画师马奇司特的门下学画——他的名望你是知道的。他收费高,课程轻松——这种高学费的轻课程给大画师带来了声誉。笛丽雅在罗森司托克手下学习——你知道他的名望:钢琴键盘上的“干扰家”。
‘Clementina,’ she explained, ‘insisted upon a Welsh rabbit after her lesson. She is such a queer girl. Welsh rabbits at five in the afternoon. The General was there. You should have seen him run for the chafing dish, Joe, just as if there wasn’t a servant in the house. I know Clementina isn’t in good health; she is so nervous. In serving the rabbit she spilled a great lot of it, boiling hot, over my hand and wrist. It hurt awfully, Joe. And the dear girl was so sorry! But General Pinkney! – Joe, that old man nearly went distracted. He rushed downstairs and sent somebody – they said the furnace man or somebody in the basement – out to a drug store for some oil and things to bind it up with. It doesn’t hurt so much now.’
她解释说:“克莱门提娜坚持在她上完课后吃‘威尔士奶酪面包’(这种烤面包上涂着奶烙和其他调味品。译者注)她是这样一个古怪的姑娘。下午五点吃‘威尔士奶烙面包’。将军也在那里。亲爱的,你真该看看他跑着帮厨的情景,好像家里没有仆人似的。我知道克莱门提娜身体不好;她又是神经质。在做这种面包时弄翻了许多奶酪,滚烫的,溅到我的手和手腕。当时疼得很厉害。亲爱的!可爱的姑娘很抱歉!可是平克尼将军呢?亲爱的焦!这个老人几乎急疯了。他冲到楼下,打发一个人,他们说是锅炉工或地下室的人,出门到一个药店拿来一些油脂和别的东西,把手包扎起来。现在疼得不那样厉害了。”