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金于 2009-10-21 12:23
从“手提”二字的英译写起
(2009年10月21日发稿)
上文谈到,许老把李煜《菩萨蛮》“手提金缕鞋”译成Holding in hand my shoes sown with gold thread,我建议在hand前加物主代词her;现在就用张道真《现代英语用法词典》的丰富例句,整理成文,供网友参考。
一、In one’s hand (hands)的用法
Authur came up the garden with a large bunch of yellow roses in his hand(手里拿这一大把玫瑰花).
She leaned her elbows on her knees and cupped her chin in her hands(用双手托者下巴).(cup n.杯子;vt.把放置在杯状物里)
在这里,in one’s hand (hands)前有动词表示手的动作或姿势; 如果前面没有用动词而只用系词,则in one’s hand (hands)表示其他意义。in one’s(own)hands表示“由某人负责、决定、掌握、控制”等,这时必须用复数hands。例如:
He openeed the letter; the writing was in his mother’s hand.(in his mother’s hand是他母亲亲手写的;hand表示“笔迹,笔体”)
The documents are in my solicitor’s(律师的)hands
The matter is in your hands.
His fate is in his own hands.
二、成语In hand的用法
成语In hand通常(做后置定语)修饰前面的名词。该名词前常用动词have;have sth. in hand表示“手头上有”、“正在进行的”;have sth.well in hand则表示“在掌握之中”、“在控制中”,如果该名词(sth.)做主语,则谓语用系词be。例如:
Keep your attention on the matter in hand.
As the matter in hand was urgent we dealt with it at once.
I still have $10 in hand after paying the bill.
When the meeting finished at 3:30 we had still almost an hour in hand before our train left.
He says he will do us an Irish play as soon as he had finished a book he had now in hand.
The situation is well in hand.
We have the situation well in hand.
The police had the mob wellin hand.
三、成语On hand的用法
成语On hand也表示“手头上有”、“正在进行的”;在此
情况下不仅与成语 in hand同义,而且用法相同。例如:
Jim had no cash on hand to pay for the gas.
I asked the grocer wha kinds of canned meat he had on hand.
I always like to keep a certain amount of money on hand , in case of an emergency.
I have a great deal of important work on hand.
There’s a big job on hand for to-morrow; we must start early.
Do you have anything on hand for this evening?
但成语on hand还表示如下意义,例如:
Always have your dictionary on hand(手头有,身边有) when you study.
Please be on hand(来到跟前)at 12 sharp.
Soon school will end and vacation will be on hand(就在眼前).
All his friends will be on hand(请临现场)to see Jack receive the medal of honour.
Hogg was frequently on hand(亲自出席)for discussions.
Mr. Blake’s secretary is always on hand(跟在身边)when he appears in public.
on one’s hands也表示“由某人管理、处理、做”,但不能表示“由某人掌握”——这跟in one’s hands又同又异。例如:
I’ve a lot of work on my hands.
It couldn’t be done. I have enough trouble on my hands already.
The mother has five young children on her hands. (on her hands不表示“抱在手上”,而表示“需要抚养”)
四、成语at hand的用法on her hands
介词at表示地点比较含糊,不如 in(在内部)与 on(在上面)那样清楚。这也多少反映在成语at hand的用法上。一般地说,at hand与on hand同义。例如:
I haven’t my book at hand(手头,身边), but I’ll show it to you later.
When he writes, he always keeps a dictionary at hand(手头,身边).
The youth wished more than ever to have his father at hand(在身边,在眼前).
The post office is close a hand(就在眼前,近在咫尺).
The examinations are at hand.(考试临近)
Spring is at hand.
at one’s hands不表示“在某人控制中”,而表示“受某人折磨”。例如:
I suffered at his hands.
I did not expect such unkind treatment at your hands.
五、成语by hand的用法
成语by hand表示“用手做”;有时表示“用手送”。例如:
The rug was obviously made by hand.
My shoes were made by hand.
Are your socks knitted by hand or machine-made?
Did the leltter come by hand or through the post?
The note was delivered by hand.

Koloya 2009-11-12 13:21
让我想起语言学里的经常提起的一个例子

为什么笔记本电脑叫Laptop而一般不叫Notebook呢?

就复合词而言,以前笔记本电脑出现时只是用来记帐的,所以可以与Note + Book通用。

现在更倾向于Lap + Top (膝上型电脑)了。所以原来构词法里的Compounding,主要是要根据不同的词素来组合,而这些词素看来有很大的特征是需要主导性词素哇!


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